SDEWES Index

Benchmarking the performance of cities across energy, water and environment systems related metrics presents an opportunity to trigger policy learning, action, and cooperation to bring cities closer to sustainable development. With this aim, the Sustainable Development of Energy, Water, and Environment Systems (SDEWES) Index is developed to benchmark cities based on 7 dimensions, 35 indicators, and close to 20 sub-indicators. The namesake of the Index is the SDEWES Center and Conferences that encourage a multi-disciplinary approach to the issues and challenges of sustainable development. Based on the wide-ranging scope of the SDEWES Index, the final ranking favors those cities that have well-rounded and above average performances in as many dimensions as possible.

City sample

The SDEWES Index is currently applied to 58 different cities, which correspond to 12 Southeast European (SEE) cities, 22 Mediterranean (MED) port cities, and 25 cities representing cities with the most number of authors and co-authors in the Book of Abstracts of the 9th Conference on SDEWES with available data, including 4 Asian and North/Latin American cities. The SDEWES Index was presented in three SDEWES Conferences in 2014 and 2015, namely the 1st SEE Conference on SDEWES in Ohrid, the 9th Conference on SDEWES that was held on a cruiser between Venice and Istanbul, and the 10th Conference on SDEWES in Dubrovnik. The conference venues of Dubrovnik, Venice, and Ohrid take place within the top 15 cities in the final ranking of the integrated sample.

Dimensions

Each of the 7 dimensions contains the min-maxed values of 5 main indicators, which are then aggregated into an Index value. These include energy consumption in buildings and transport, energy saving measures, renewable energy potential, CO2 emissions, water and air quality, urban form, education rate, and sustainability policy, including R&D and innovation, among others. Collectively, the SDEWES Index scans across aspects that are essential for the sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems in cities. The 7 dimensions are briefly overviewed below:

  • Energy Consumption and Climate

    The "Energy Consumption and Climate" dimension represents the present state of energy usage in the city. Sustainable Energy Action Plans (SEAP) provide the basis for the energy that is consumed by buildings and transport in the city. The magnitude of energy usage measures the impact of cities on energy resource spending to satisfy energy services. Total energy consumption per capita places the total magnitude of energy usage in the context of population. The number of heating and cooling degree-days is used to adjust the energy usage with climate. + Click here to see the indicators

  • Penetration of Energy and CO2 Saving Measures

    The "Penetration of Energy and CO2 Saving Measures" dimension represents the status of measures to reduce the city's energy spending and CO2 emissions. These may include combined heat and power (CHP) based district heating and/or cooling networks. Such measures enable the city to better use the quality of energy resources (exergy). Other indicators include energy savings in end-usage, including pilot net-zero buildings, the density of the public transport network based on network length, number of stations, and lines, and efficient public lighting armatures. + Click here to see the indicators

  • Renewable Energy Potential and Utilization

    The "Renewable Energy Potential and Utilization" dimension considers the solar energy, wind energy, and geothermal energy potential of the city and the utilization of this potential to produce useful energy output, particularly electricity. The utilization of renewable energy is also assessed based on the share of biofuel utilization in transport, which needs to be obtained in a sustainable manner. To stand out in this dimension, a city with a relatively higher renewable energy potential also needs to have a higher share of renewable energy usage in the energy mix. + Click here to see the indicators

  • Water and Environmental Quality

    The "Water and Environmental Quality" dimension integrates an assessment for the flows of natural resources in the city other than energy into the SDEWES Index. This dimension brings together indicators that relate to domestic water consumption per capita, the quality of drinking water, and local air quality based on particulate matter measured at PM10. Ecological footprint and biocapacity are taken from the available data at the national level. At the same time, this places the city into the context of its surrounding natural environment with which it interacts. + Click here to see the indicators

  • CO2 Emissions and Industrial Profile

    The "CO2 Emissions and Industrial Profile" dimension includes the CO2 emissions in the city from buildings and transport and the average CO2 emissions per MWh in the energy mix. Surveys of energy intense sectors that are included in EU ETS and/or the cargo load of the port are conducted to determine the industrial profile of the city, if any. For broader scope, the annual passenger traffic of the international airport that services the city is used as a proxy for air traffic related CO2 emissions. The Airport Carbon Accreditation level is included for comparison. + Click here to see the indicators

  • City Planning and Social Welfare

    The "City Planning and Social Welfare" dimension aggregates aspects that are related to the accessibility of public transport options, the presence of green protected areas within and around the city, water and waste management, urban form, as well as economic and educational opportunities. An assessment of the urban form (i.e. monocentric or polycentric) is based on satellite images of the city. For Mediterranean port cities, coastal water quality is also assessed based on the shares of the year in which there is excellent water quality as reported under 2006/7/EC. + Click here to see the indicators

  • R&D, Innovation and Sustainability Policy

    The "R&D, Innovation and Sustainability Policy" dimension is a cross-cutting dimension that couples the ambitions of the city to reduce CO2 emissions with the knowledge production and innovation capacities made available to local actors to create solutions. This includes R&D spending as a ratio of GDP, R&D support programs in the priority areas of energy and environment, number of patents with European Patent Office (EPO) green patent codes, number of universities in the city in the SCImago institutional rankings, and h-index of scientific publications. + Click here to see the indicators

Implementation, Results and Best Practices

The results of the SDEWES Index benchmark the cities’ performance and allow a comparison of best practices. The downloadable presentation from the Opening Ceremony of the 10th Conference on SDEWES provides a summary of the implementation of the SDEWES Index to the integrated city sample. The journal publications in the references further provide the details of the analytical process for the SEE and MED samples. This includes the process of data collection by dimension for the cities. For direct access to the results, click on the SDEWES Index for the integrated sample. The direct results of the SDEWES Index for Dubrovnik, which is among the top 5 cities, is available here.

SDEWES Index Interactive Table

SEE City D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 Index Chart Rank
Stockholm 2.4 4.6 3.0 3.7 4.4 3.7 2.9 3.49 1
Nice 3.4 3.2 2.5 3.1 4.1 3.4 2.9 3.33 2
Espoo 3.1 4.0 1.7 4.3 3.5 3.5 2.6 3.25 3
Dubrovnik 3.7 2.5 2.6 3.6 3.9 3.0 1.4 3.14 4
Venice 3.2 3.7 2.0 2.8 4.0 3.0 2.4 3.13 5
Valencia 3.6 3.7 3.4 2.9 3.0 3.1 1.8 3.12 6
Zagreb 3.1 4.3 2.0 3.4 3.2 2.6 2.5 3.07 7
Ohrid 3.9 2.7 1.7 3.6 3.8 3.0 1.1 3.06 8
Barcelona 3.2 4.5 3.3 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.2 3.06 9
Karşıyaka 3.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 3.9 1.8 2.1 3.05 10
Málaga 3.5 3.5 2.7 2.7 3.5 2.7 1.7 3.05 11
Seferihisar 3.8 2.2 2.8 2.8 4.1 1.8 1.6 3.01 12
Bucharest* 3.5 4.2 2.3 3.0 2.9 2.4 2.2 2.99 13
Bari 3.5 2.8 2.6 2.9 3.2 2.4 2.5 2.98 14
Sevilla 3.4 3.4 3.4 2.5 2.9 3.0 2.0 2.98 15
Zaragoza 3.2 4.2 2.8 2.6 2.9 3.0 1.8 2.97 16
Grenoble 3.0 3.0 2.5 2.8 3.1 3.3 2.6 2.94 17
Lisbon 2.9 4.6 3.1 2.9 2.6 2.7 2.1 2.94 18
Zadar 3.7 2.3 2.1 3.5 3.5 2.7 1.6 2.93 19
Naples 2.9 4.0 2.3 2.6 3.2 2.6 2.4 2.93 20
Vienna 2.7 4.6 2.5 2.7 2.5 3.9 2.5 2.93 21
Paris 1.9 4.8 2.3 2.8 3.0 3.4 3.4 2.92 22
Århus 2.7 3.8 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.5 2.3 2.92 23
Genoa 3.3 4.5 2.5 3.0 2.7 2.3 2.1 2.92 24
Pula 3.3 2.8 2.2 3.6 3.4 2.4 1.6 2.91 25
Bornova 3.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 3.3 2.1 1.9 2.88 26
Frankfurt 2.4 4.1 2.2 3.1 2.7 3.1 3.3 2.87 27
Leuven 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.3 4.3 2.9 1.8 2.87 28
Pisa 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.7 3.6 2.3 2.1 2.86 29
Sofia 3.4 4.3 2.1 2.7 2.9 2.0 2.0 2.86 30
Milan 2.5 4.1 1.9 2.4 3.7 2.5 2.3 2.85 31
Heraklion 3.7 2.3 2.6 2.9 3.2 2.2 1.6 2.84 32
Rijeka 3.6 2.8 1.5 3.5 3.1 2.4 1.7 2.82 33
Belgrade 3.2 2.7 1.8 3.8 2.8 2.8 2.1 2.81 34
Kalamariá 3.7 2.3 2.3 2.7 3.2 2.2 1.5 2.78 35
Patras 3.7 2.8 2.3 2.9 2.8 2.3 1.3 2.74 36
Ljubljana 3.1 3.7 1.3 3.2 2.6 2.7 2.3 2.74 37
Maribor 3.2 3.6 1.4 2.7 3.0 3.0 1.4 2.72 38
Timișoara 3.6 3.0 1.6 2.9 3.1 2.2 1.2 2.70 39
Niš 3.8 2.8 1.9 3.0 2.5 1.9 1.7 2.67 40
Eskişehir Tepebaşı 3.6 2.0 2.3 2.8 3.0 1.5 1.8 2.67 41
Antalya 3.3 2.7 2.3 2.7 3.0 1.7 1.9 2.66 42
Cluj-Napoca 3.6 3.0 1.6 2.6 3.0 2.0 1.3 2.65 43
Volos 3.5 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.5 2.1 1.4 2.65 44
Sarajevo 3.6 2.7 1.3 3.0 3.5 1.7 0.9 2.65 45
Thessaloniki 3.4 3.3 2.3 2.6 2.4 2.5 1.4 2.64 46
Skopje 3.8 3.0 1.8 1.6 2.8 2.3 1.4 2.58 47
Incheon 2.3 4.2 1.5 1.9 2.6 2.8 3.1 2.58 48
Podgorica 3.6 2.2 1.9 3.5 2.9 1.4 1.0 2.57 49
Cologne 1.7 4.2 2.1 3.1 2.1 2.9 3.1 2.56 50
Tirana 3.7 2.2 2.2 3.1 3.0 1.0 1.0 2.56 51
Ostrava 3.5 3.0 1.8 1.7 2.4 2.6 1.4 2.51 52
Warsaw 2.7 3.4 1.6 2.9 1.8 2.9 2.0 2.42 53
Athens 2.4 2.2 2.9 2.7 2.2 2.3 1.7 2.30 54
Washington D.C. 1.8 2.5 1.8 1.8 2.4 2.9 3.2 2.30 55
Istanbul** 2.5 1.7 2.0 2.7 2.5 1.6 2.2 2.24 56
Bogotá 2.7 2.5 1.5 2.5 1.9 2.4 1.3 2.17 57
Nagoya 1.0 3.7 1.7 2.4 1.0 3.0 3.2 1.99 58
(*) District 1 with SEAP
(**) 12 districts on the Thrace side
References:

Kilkiş, Ş., Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems Index for Southeast European Cities, Journal of Cleaner Production, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.07.121

Kilkiş, Ş., Composite Index for Benchmarking Local Energy Systems of Mediterranean Port Cities, Energy,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.06.093


For inquiries and comments regarding the SDEWES Index, contact: siir.kilkis@tubitak.gov.tr
(Dr. Şiir KILKIŞ, SDEWES Center Member)


SDEWES INDEX
Benchmarking the performance of cities across energy, water and environment systems
related metrics presents an opportunity to trigger policy learning, action, and cooperation to bring cities closer to sustainable development.


NEWS
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  • Project FosterREG - Second in the series of workshops "How to plan, finance and manage the projects with integrated energy efficiency measures in urban regeneration" took place in Osijek.
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  • „Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems“ published Volume 5, Issue 2 (for June 2017). Read more at the journal home page.

  • Project FosterREG - First in the series of workshops "How to plan, finance and manage the projects with integrated energy efficiency measures in urban regeneration" took place in Zagreb.
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  • „Journal Thermal Science“ published a special issue. See more SDEWES special issues in the journal here.

  • „Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy“ published a special issue. See more SDEWES special issues in the journal here.

  • „Energy - The International Journal“ published a special issue. See more SDEWES special issues in the journal here.

  • The International Centre for Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Centre) in cooperation with Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture conducts awarding of master’s theses in the field of sustainable development of energy, water and the environment of UNIZAG FSB students. All graduate students that have defended their thesis in academic year 2015/2016 are eligible for contest. Applications need to be sent by September 1st, 2016. Contest details are below.

  • SDEWES Centre has awarded the best graduate theses in the past academic year of Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture in the field of sustainable development of energy, water and the environment systems. A committee consisting of Prof. Nataša Markovska, Prof. Nikola Ružinski and Prof. Aleksander Zidanšek made a decision on the three best graduate theses and the best authors are Dominik Dominković, Nikola Matak and Karlo Kupres. They will be rewarded with a fee waiver for a SDEWES conference of their choice, and the best thesis author will also have fully paid transport costs and accommodation during the selected conference. Congratulations! Full decision is available here.

  • FosterREG website has been launched! FosterREG aims at enhancing public capacity at local, regional and national levels to plan, finance and manage integrated urban regeneration for sustainable energy uptake.

  • „Energy Conversion and Management“ published a special issue. See more SDEWES special issues in the journal here.

  • The International Centre for Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Centre) in cooperation with Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture conducts awarding of master’s theses in the field of sustainable development of energy, water and the environment of UNIZAG FSB students. All graduate students that have defended their thesis in academic year 2014/2015 are eligible for contest. Applications need to be sent by September 1st, 2015. Contest details are below.

  • „Waste Management & Research“ published a special issue. See more SDEWES special issues in the journal here.

  • World Academy of Art and Science published an invitation to the SDEWES2015 Conference in Dubrovnik.

  • Croatian portal Europski fondovi announced the SDEWES2015 Conference in Dubrovnik (in Croatian).

  • „Applied Energy“ published a special issue dedicated to 8th Dubrovnik conference. See more SDEWES special issues in the journal here.

  • „Management of Environmental Quality“ published a special issue dedicated to 8th Dubrovnik conference. See more SDEWES special issues in the journal here.

  • Out of top 5 downloaded Energy papers, 2 are from SDEWES special issues!

  • „International Journal of Sustainable Water and Environmental Systems“ published a special issue dedicated to 8th SDEWES conference. See more SDEWES special issues in the journal here.

  • „Energy - The International Journal“ published a special issue dedicated to 8th SDEWES conference. See more SDEWES special issues in the journal here.

  • „Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal“ published a special issue dedicated to 8th Dubrovnik conference. See more SDEWES special issues in the journal here.

  • „Journal Thermal Science“ published a special issue dedicated to 5th Dubrovnik conference. See more SDEWES special issues in the journal here.

  • „Applied Energy“ published a special issue dedicated to 8th SDEWES conference. See more SDEWES special issues in the journal here.